|By PR Newswire||
|December 7, 2012 07:07 AM EST||
SAN DIEGO, Dec. 7, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --Aethlon Medical, Inc. (OTCBB: AEMD), today released the following note authored by its Chairman and CEO, Jim Joyce.
At Aethlon Medical, our focus is to create revolutionary medical devices that save lives. In the treatment of Hepatitis C (HCV) infected individuals, we have demonstrated that our Hemopurifier® synergistically combines with drug therapy to accelerate the achievement of undetectable viral load. In cancer, I envision our opportunity to save lives will be driven by the discovery that our Hemopurifier® can addresses a therapeutic target that plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, yet remains beyond the reach of drug therapies. The target? Microvesicles known as exosomes, which are particles secreted by tumors underlying a wide-range of cancers.
When we first initiated our tumor-derived exosome research, it was based on a belief that these particles were immunosuppressive, much like glycoproteins that shed from HIV and other viral pathogens. However, the medical community consensus at the time was that exosomes had no biological function other than to discard cellular debris. Today, tumor-derived exosomes are known to suppress the immune response in cancer patients. Beyond possessing immunosuppressive properties, tumor-derived exosomes facilitate tumor growth, metastasis, and the development of drug resistance. Such deleterious effects underlie the pathogenesis of cancer, and as a result of our early research we have been able to obtain broad patent protection in the field. By addressing this unmet medical need, our objective is to deliver a medical device that improves the benefit of cancer therapies without adding drug resistance or interaction risks.
As more and more medical institutes establish exosome research programs, we benefit from new discoveries that will help us to understand which forms of cancer are most likely to benefit from our technology. In this regard, Dr. Annette Marleau (our Director of Tumor Immunology) provides the following review on recent discoveries that describe the implication of exosomes in metastatic melanoma, a form of cancer whose 5-year survival rate is less than 20%.
Exosomes As Therapeutic Targets In Metastatic Melanoma
Exosomes are nano-sized microvesicles released in large quantities by cancer cells that are key culprits in the pathogenesis of several cancer types. Exosomes are now recognized as biological delivery vehicles for communication between cells in almost every system of the body investigated to date. In the area of oncology, cancer derived exosomes are highly stable "packages" released from tumors that transport proteins and genetic material from their originating tumor cells to distant sites throughout the body to accelerate tumor progression. In melanoma patients, tumor-secreted exosomes serve as carriers of malignant proteins and their levels in circulation correlate with the aggressiveness of the cancer1. To date, cancer exosomes have been implicated in: a) immune suppression; b) enhancement of angiogenesis; and c) promotion of metastasis, which will be discussed below.
Owing to several recent publications that have defined their pathological roles in metastatic disease, melanoma exosomes are emerging as candidate therapeutic targets. Metastatic (stage 4) melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, has a five-year survival rate of only 15-20%2. This disease continues to be a challenge to treat, as the current standard treatments have proven to be ineffective and/or highly toxic. Since patients afflicted with metastatic melanoma have suppressed immune systems due to tumor- and drug-related effects, the efficacy of novel immunotherapeutic solutions is limited and only small percentages of patients experience durable responses and extended survival. Thus, the development of novel treatments to reliably bolster anti-cancer immune responses remains an urgent clinical objective.
Recent scientific studies have defined the importance of melanoma exosomes in the progression of cancer, thereby providing the rationale for targeting tumor-derived nano-vesicles therapeutically. In a 2012 publication in the prestigious journal Nature Medicine, Dr. David Lynden's group at Weill Cornell Medical College and their colleagues reported that melanoma tumors release exosomes that condition metastatic sites for growth of tumors and their supporting blood vessels3. This publication also identifies a correlation between high exosome concentrations in circulation with advanced disease and poor prognosis of patients. This knowledge reinforces the concept that a strategy for eliminating circulating exosomes could be beneficial for addressing metastatic disease.
A pivotal publication by Dr. Joshua Hood and colleagues at Washington University School of Medicine showed that melanoma exosomes migrate to lymph nodes and alter the biochemical milieu to allow lodging of cancer cells in the establishment of metastatic foci4. Once again, this study suggests that systemic clearance of melanoma exosomes could interrupt the "messenger system" underlying metastasis. Along these same lines, a study by Parolini and colleagues in The Journal of Biological Chemistry demonstrated that melanoma exosomes serve as delivery vehicles for spreading malignant proteins from high aggressive metastatic cells to less aggressive cancer cells5.This article raises the concept that exosomes from a primary tumor can transfer their cargo to distant organs, thereby allowing the malignancy to spread.
Experiments have also demonstrated that the functions of immune cells are impaired by melanoma exosomes6. Since the immune system is responsible for recognizing and destroying cancer cells, exosomes thereby manipulate immunity to allow tumors to grow unchecked. Additionally, since immunotherapy is administered to bolster the patient's endogenous immune response, melanoma exosomes impair the effectiveness of these treatments. On this basis, a device strategy for removal of circulating exosomes could be implemented to reverse immune dysfunction in order to improve the effectiveness of standard of care treatments against metastatic melanoma.
Given these recent scientific developments that reveal broad tumor growth promoting and immune inhibitory effects of melanoma exosomes, there is a strong impetus for moving forward with therapeutic targeting options, which do not exist to date. Clinical studies are needed to define the impact of exosomes in metastatic melanoma and to offer promising new treatment solutions that are urgently needed.
1 Logozzi M, De Milito A, Lugini L, Borghi M, Calabrò L, Spada M, Perdicchio M, Marino ML, Federici C, Iessi E, Brambilla D, Venturi G, Lozupone F, Santinami M, Huber V, Maio M, Rivoltini L, Fais S. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5219.
3Peinado H, Alečković M, Lavotshkin S, Matei I, Costa-Silva B, Moreno-Bueno G, Hergueta-Redondo M, Williams C, García-Santos G, Ghajar C, Nitadori-Hoshino A, Hoffman C, Badal K, Garcia BA, Callahan MK, Yuan J, Martins VR, Skog J, Kaplan RN, Brady MS, Wolchok JD, Chapman PB, Kang Y, Bromberg J, Lyden D. Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET. Nat Med. 2012 Jun;18(6):883-91.
5Parolini I, Federici C, Raggi C, Lugini L, Palleschi S, De Milito A, Coscia C, Iessi E, Logozzi M, Molinari A, Colone M, Tatti M, Sargiacomo M, Fais S. Microenvironmental pH is a key factor for exosome traffic in tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):34211-22.
6 Marton A, Vizler C, Kusz E, Temesfoi V, Szathmary Z, Nagy K, Szegletes Z, Varo G, Siklos L, Katona RL, Tubak V, Howard OM, Duda E, Minarovits J, Nagy K, Buzas K. Melanoma cell-derived exosomes alter macrophage and dendritic cell functions in vitro. ImmunolLett. 2012 Nov;148(1):34-8.
About Aethlon Medical, Inc.
The Aethlon Medical mission is to create innovative medical devices that address unmet medical needs in cancer, infectious disease, and other life-threatening conditions. Our Aethlon ADAPT™ System is a revenue-stage technology platform that provides the basis for a new class of therapeutics that target the selective removal of disease enabling particles from the entire circulatory system. At present, The Aethlon ADAPT™ product pipeline includes the Aethlon Hemopurifier® to address infectious disease and cancer, and a medical device being developed under a contract with DARPA to reduce the incidence of sepsis in combat-injured soldiers and civilians. For more information, please visit www.aethlonmedical.com.
Certain statements herein may be forward-looking and involve risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements involve assumptions, known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Aethlon Medical, Inc. to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such potential risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, that the FDA will not approve the initiation of the Company's clinical programs or provide market clearance of the company's products, future human studies whether revenue or non-revenue generating from either compassionate use or non-compassionate use of the Aethlon ADAPT™ system or the Aethlon Hemopurifier® as an adjunct therapy to improve patient responsiveness to established cancer or hepatitis C therapies or as a standalone cancer or hepatitis C therapy, the Company's ability to raise capital when needed, the Company's ability to complete the development of its planned products, the Company's ability to manufacture its products either internally or through outside companies and provide its services, the impact of government regulations, patent protection on the Company's proprietary technology, product liability exposure, uncertainty of market acceptance, competition, technological change, and other risk factors. In such instances, actual results could differ materially as a result of a variety of factors, including the risks associated with the effect of changing economic conditions and other risk factors detailed in the Company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
James A. Joyce
Chairman and CEO
Chief Financial Officer
SOURCE Aethlon Medical, Inc.
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 6thInternet of @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Sep. 29, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,741
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Sep. 29, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,949
Video experiences should be unique and exciting! But that doesn’t mean you need to patch all the pieces yourself. Users demand rich and engaging experiences and new ways to connect with you. But creating robust video applications at scale can be complicated, time-consuming and expensive. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Zohar Babin, Vice President of Platform, Ecosystem and Community at Kaltura, will discuss how VPaaS enables you to move fast, creating scalable video experiences that reach your...
Sep. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,135
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Sep. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,935
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Sep. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,594
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
Sep. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 4,171
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Sep. 29, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,114
Most of us already know that adopting new cloud applications can boost a business’s productivity by enabling organizations to be more agile and ready to change course in our fast-moving and connected digital world. But the rapid adoption of cloud apps and services also brings with it profound security threats, including visibility and control challenges that aren’t present in traditional on-premises environments. At the same time, the cloud – because of its interconnected, flexible and adaptable...
Sep. 29, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,773
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Sep. 29, 2016 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,449
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Sep. 29, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,920
SYS-CON Events announced today the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp, being held November 1-2, 2016, in conjunction with 19th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but with hands-on demos and detailed walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of real world use cases prototyped using Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark, and Intel Edison. Y...
Sep. 29, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,017
Businesses are struggling to manage the information flow and interactions between all of these new devices and things jumping on their network, and the apps and IT systems they control. The data businesses gather is only helpful if they can do something with it. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Witeck, Principal Technology Strategist at Citrix, will discuss how different the impact of IoT will be for large businesses, expanding how IoT will allow large organizations to make their legacy ap...
Sep. 29, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 320
The vision of a connected smart home is becoming reality with the application of integrated wireless technologies in devices and appliances. The use of standardized and TCP/IP networked wireless technologies in line-powered and battery operated sensors and controls has led to the adoption of radios in the 2.4GHz band, including Wi-Fi, BT/BLE and 802.15.4 applied ZigBee and Thread. This is driving the need for robust wireless coexistence for multiple radios to ensure throughput performance and th...
Sep. 29, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,691
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Sep. 29, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 5,134
The many IoT deployments around the world are busy integrating smart devices and sensors into their enterprise IT infrastructures. Yet all of this technology – and there are an amazing number of choices – is of no use without the software to gather, communicate, and analyze the new data flows. Without software, there is no IT. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the protocols that communicate data and the emerging data analy...
Sep. 29, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,746