|By PR Newswire||
|August 11, 2014 11:29 AM EDT||
LONDON, August 11, 2014 /PRNewswire/ --
The "Epic" operation serves as the first phase in a multi-stage infection of the Turla campaign
Turla, also known as Snake or Uroburos is one of the most sophisticated ongoing cyber-espionage campaigns. When the first research on Turla/Snake/Uroburos was published, it didn't answer one major question: how do victims become infected?
The latest Kaspersky Lab research on this operation reveals that Epic is the initial stage of the Turla victim infection mechanism.
Turla big picture:
- Epic Turla / Tavdig: The early-stage infection mechanism.
- Cobra Carbon system/ Pfinet (+others): Intermediary upgrades and communication plugins.
- Snake / Uroburos: High-grade malware platform that includes a rootkit and virtual file systems.
The "Epic" project has been used since at least 2012, with the highest volume of activity observed in January-February 2014. Most recently, Kaspersky Lab detected this attack against one of its users on August 5, 2014.
Targets of "Epic" belong to the following categories: government entities (Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Trade and Commerce, Ministry of Foreign/External affairs, intelligence agencies), embassies, military, research and education organisations and pharmaceutical companies.
Most of the victims are located in the Middle East and Europe, however, we observed victims in other regions, including in the USA. In total, Kaspersky Lab experts counted several hundred victim IPs distributed in more than 45 countries, with France at the top of the list.
Distribution of the top 20 affected countries by victim IP
Kaspersky Lab researchers discovered that the Epic Turla attackers use zero-day exploits, social engineering and watering hole technique attacks to infect victims.
In the past, they used at least two zero-day exploits: one for Escalation of Privileges (EoP) in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 (CVE-2013-5065.) which allows the Epic backdoor to achieve administrator privileges on the system and run unrestricted; and an exploit in Adobe Reader (CVE-2013-3346) that is used in malicious e-mail attachments.
Whenever an unsuspecting user opens a maliciously-crafted PDF file on a vulnerable system, the machine will automatically become infected, allowing the attacker to gain immediate and full control over the target system.
The attackers use both direct spear-phishing e-mails and watering hole attacks to infect victims. The attacks detected in this operation fall into several different categories depending on the initial infection vector used in compromising the victim:
● Spear-phishing e-mails with Adobe PDF exploits (CVE-2013-3346 + CVE-2013-5065.)
● Social engineering to trick the user into running malware installers with ".SCR" extension, sometimes packed with RAR
● Watering hole attacks using Java exploits (CVE-2012-1723), Adobe Flash exploits (unknown) or Internet Explorer 6, 7, 8 exploits (unknown)
● Watering hole attacks that rely on social engineering to trick the user into running fake "Flash Player" malware installers
Watering holes are websites commonly visited by potential victims. These websites are compromised in advance by the attackers and are injected to serve malicious code. Depending on the visitor's IP address (for instance, a government organisation's IP), the attackers serve Java or browser exploits, signed fake Adobe Flash Player software or a fake version of Microsoft Security Essentials. In total, we have observed more than 100 injected websites. The choice of the websites reflects specific interest of attackers. For example, many of the infected Spanish websites belong to local governments.
Once the user is infected, the Epic backdoor immediately connects to the command-and-control (C&C) server to send a pack with the victim's system information. The backdoor is also known as "WorldCupSec", "TadjMakhal", "Wipbot" or "Tadvig".
Once a system is compromised, the attackers receive a brief summary of information from the victim, and based on that, they deliver pre-configured batch files containing a series of commands for execution. In addition to these, the attackers upload custom lateral movement tools. These include a specific keylogger tool, a RAR archiver and standard utilities like a DNS query tool from Microsoft.
Turla's first stage:
During the analysis, Kaspersky Lab researchers observed the attackers using the Epic malware to deploy a more sophisticated backdoor known as the "Cobra/Carbon system", also named "Pfinet" by some anti-virus products. After some time, the attackers went further and used the Epic implant to update the "Carbon" configuration file with a different set of C&C servers. The unique knowledge to operate these two backdoors indicates a clear and direct connection between each other.
"The configuration updates for the 'Carbon system' malware are interesting, because this is another project from the Turla actor. This indicates that we are dealing with a multi-stage infection that begins with Epic Turla. The Epic Turla is used to gain a foothold and validate the high profile victim. If the victim is interesting, it gets upgraded to the full Turla Carbon system" explains Costin Raiu, Director of the Global Research and Analysis Team at Kaspersky Lab.
The attackers behind Turla are clearly not native English speakers. They commonly misspell words and expressions, such as:
- Password it´s wrong!
- File is not exists
- File is exists for edit
There are other indications which provide a hint at the origin of the attackers. For instance, some of the backdoors have been compiled on a system with Russian language. Additionally, the internal name of one of the Epic backdoors is "Zagruzchik.dll", which means "bootloader" or "load program" in Russian.
Finally, the Epic mothership control panel sets the code page to 1251, which is used for Cyrillic characters.
Links with other threat actors:
Interestingly, possible connections with different cyber-espionage campaigns have been observed. In February 2014, Kaspersky Lab experts observed that the threat actor known as Miniduke were using the same web-shells to manage infected web servers as the Epic team did.
To learn more about the "Epic Turla" operation, please read the blog post available at Securelist.com.
About Kaspersky Lab
Kaspersky Lab is the world's largest privately held vendor of endpoint protection solutions. The company is ranked among the world's top four vendors of security solutions for endpoint users*. Throughout its more than 16-year history Kaspersky Lab has remained an innovator in IT security and provides effective digital security solutions for large enterprises, SMBs and consumers. Kaspersky Lab, with its holding company registered in the United Kingdom, currently operates in almost 200 countries and territories across the globe, providing protection for over 300 million users worldwide. Learn more at http://www.kaspersky.com.
* The company was rated fourth in the IDC rating Worldwide Endpoint Security Revenue by Vendor, 2012. The rating was published in the IDC report "Worldwide Endpoint Security 2013-2017 Forecast and 2012 Vendor Shares (IDC #242618, August 2013). The report ranked software vendors according to earnings from sales of endpoint security solutions in 2012.
1650 Arlington Business Park
RG7 4SA, Reading
Kaspersky Lab UK
2 Kingdom Street
W2 6BD, London
SOURCE Kaspersky Lab
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,700
If you had a chance to enter on the ground level of the largest e-commerce market in the world – would you? China is the world’s most populated country with the second largest economy and the world’s fastest growing market. It is estimated that by 2018 the Chinese market will be reaching over $30 billion in gaming revenue alone. Admittedly for a foreign company, doing business in China can be challenging. Often changing laws, administrative regulations and the often inscrutable Chinese Interne...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 522
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 AM EDT
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,218
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, will discuss recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model f...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,152
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abil...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,820
SYS-CON Events announced today that Niagara Networks will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Niagara Networks offers the highest port-density systems, and the most complete Next-Generation Network Visibility systems including Network Packet Brokers, Bypass Switches, and Network TAPs.
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 561
Sep. 30, 2016 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 114
Sep. 30, 2016 07:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,244
Sep. 30, 2016 07:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,271
Sep. 30, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,466
Sep. 30, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,338
Sep. 30, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,507
Sep. 30, 2016 06:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,130
Sep. 30, 2016 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,263