Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

News Feed Item

Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets

LONDON, Sept. 2, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportbuyer.com has added a new market research report:

Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets

https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/1923020/Biorefinery-Technologies-Global-Markets.html

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

BCC Research has just completed a study on the market for biorefinery technologies. In industry, biorefineries employ the technologies in which biomass is converted into useful intermediates for fuels, energy, chemicals and non-food herbals/botanicals by direct combustion, as well as by thermal, chemical and biological processes. Direct combustion technology involves burning untreated biomass material in boilers or furnaces. Thermal processes involve heating the biomass material. Chemical processes involve breaking down or converting the feedstocks through chemical reactions, membranes, metal catalysts and other physical separation technologies. Biological conversion technologies use microbiological action to convert the biomass material into usable fuel and other bioproducts. The objectives of this BCC Research report are:

• To identify and communicate critical needs for building scientific and engineering capabilities for the conversion of biorenewables to fuels, chemicals and other value-added products such as polymers.
• To assess the current state of chemical (i.e., heterogeneous, homogeneous) catalyst and biocatalyst science and technology that is applicable to biorenewables.
• To identify curricular and workforce needs to prepare engineers and scientists for a biorenewable-based chemical, fuel and material industry.
• To develop and prioritize goals and directions for the development of effective conversion technologies, including the integration of physicochemical, thermochemical and biochemical catalysis in future biorefinery.
• To quantify the conversion technology market and identify global diversification of biorefinery feedstocks.
• To provide a critical evaluation of the current status of commercial biorefinery markets and the ways in which recent environmental legislation and breakthroughs in technology will make use of biobased products competitive with established petro-based platforms.
• To assess the technological competences of original equipment manufacturers (OEM), engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies, and plant owners who are global entities whose experience and technological improvements will not be restricted by national borders.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

For the first time since 1949, the U.S. has become a net petroleum product exporting country, having edged out Russia as the world's largest refined petroleum exporter. A simple explanation would point to lower demand and a struggling economy that requires less imported energy, but that is only half the answer. U.S. oil demand has fallen by some two million barrels per day since its peak in 2005 in part due to the recession, but also due to a structural change due to demographic changes, policies on fuel efficiencies and the mass-commercialization of technologies. The more exciting part of the answer is on the supply side, as the U.S. has become the fastest-growing oil and natural gas-producing area of the world. It is now the most important marginal source for oil and gas globally. Combined with a steadily growing Canadian production and a comeback in Mexican production, this has resulted in a higher growth rate than all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can sustain over the next five years to 2018. Biofuels account for just 1% of global fuel consumption for transportation, and the substitution of oil-based fuels is only 1.8% in the U.S., but in Brazil, it reaches 20%. Latin America is one of the regions with the most potential to offer biofuels given its climatic advantages combined with low population density.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This BCC Research biorefinery technologies report is designed to satisfy the information required by anyone concerned with the development of agriculture, energy and fuels, including:

• Technology management and personnel.
• New business/development management and personnel.
• Merchant project investors and developers.
• Utility procurement personnel.
• Green power marketers.
• Generation asset owners looking to diversify their portfolios.
• Energy market advisors.
• New energy professionals.
• Veteran energy professionals.
• Attorneys and counsel to the energy industry.
• Managers and directors of renewable energy.
• Process engineers.
• Chemical and biochemical engineers.
• Agrochemicals producers.
• Plant operations engineers.
• Graduate engineers.
• Supervisors.
• Operators.
• Chemists and technicians.
• Soft commodity traders.
• Venture capital investors.
• Commodity brokers and analysts.
• Biofuel producers.
• Trade-commodity financiers.
• Investors.
• Fund managers.
• Biofuels technology and equipment suppliers.
• Chemical manufactures.
• Commodity inspection and surveyors.
• Commodity exchanges.
• Electricity generating companies.
• Government officials and regulators.
• Industry analysts.
• Agricultural and feedstock suppliers.
• Energy and environmental researchers.
• Vegetable oil crushers and refiners.
• Fuel marketers and distributors.
• Automobile manufacturers.
• Project developers.
• Government experts from developed and developing countries.
• Technology providers.
• Verifiers, certifiers and validators.
• Financial intermediaries (e.g., banks, insurance companies).
• Brokers and traders interested in metering.
• Persons in the sensor and monitoring markets.
• Law firms.
• Accounting and auditing firms.
• Marketing managers.
• Senior petrochemical executives.
• Oil and gas majors.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Edward Gobina is a Full U.K. Professor of Chemical and Processing Engineering with 32 years of research and teaching experience in environmental engineering, petrochemical reaction engineering, and catalysis and membrane technology. His scientific achievements are archived in more than 150 articles and spread in more than 20 granted patents, more than 30 patent applications, and more than 100 invited and guest speaker presentations, as well as contributed presentations and prestigious refereed scientific journals, newsletters, proceedings and reviews. He has been a project analyst for BCC Research since 1998 and has authored more than 22 BCC Research reports. His reports have provided the critical links in the entire chemical and energy infrastructure chain occasioned from hydrogen to advanced oil and gas exploitation, sensors and monitoring, and LNG infrastructure. Professor Gobina is a member of the European Membrane Society (EMS), the North American Membrane Society (NAMS) and the New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS). He is the current director of the Centre for Process Integration and Membrane Technology (CPIMT) within the School of Engineering at the Robert Gordon University in the U.K.

METHODOLOGY

Both historic and current data have been used in the demand analysis for this report. The results of the calculations presented here are therefore based on three components: a historic analysis of the demand in the period 2010 to 2012, estimated data for 2013 and forecasted demand for the period through 2018. BCC Research has done a straightforward calculation of likely biorefinery demand generally based on the public policy requirements that countries will be putting into place during the study time period. In its analyses, BCC Research has highlighted those countries it expects could be major biorefinery products exporters, as well as those countries that will likely need to import to meet expected mandates. The analyses also include BCC Research's view based on its projections of whether biorefinery mandates enacted will likely take effect as expected (for most of the countries included in this study, BCC Research finds that they will, although at varying time frames).

SCOPE OF THE REPORT

The report starts with an overview that provides a background to the industry and quantifies the biorefinery conversion technologies and reports on market trends. It also indicates the importance of the industry and the ways in which biorefinery technologies fit into the global economy. It also quantifies staffing and salary, professions, carriers, occupations, new product development and market penetration.

The next section assesses biorefinery technology economics and their impact on investments and the development of rural economies.

The next section quantifies the demand for physico-chemical technology platforms, including processes (e.g., pressing, pre-treatment, milling, separation, distillation) that do not change the chemical structure of the biomass components, but perform a size reduction or a separation of feedstock components and chemical processes (e.g., hydrolysis, transesterification, hydrogenation, oxidation, pulping) in which a chemical change in the substrate occurs.

The next section quantifies the industrial biotechnology platform, including industrial microbiological processes such as anaerobic digestion, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic conversion that occur under mild operating conditions (e.g., lower temperature and pressure) using microorganisms or enzymes.

The next section quantifies the thermochemical technology platform, including pyrolysis; gasification, hydrothermal upgrading and combustion, including processes in which feedstock undergoes extreme conditions (e.g., high temperature and/or pressure, with or without a catalytic means).

The next section presents the technology development of advanced biorefinery technologies.
The next section presents the process developments and includes an evaluation of major patents.
The next section describes the biorefinery technology industry structure. It considers a number of influencing factors, including macro factors that affect the global economy and the agricultural economy in particular, and industry-specific factors such as the public acceptance of biorefinery products. Consideration has also been given to the development of the industry over the period since 2010 and the forces that have led to its ongoing restructuring. It also assesses the rise of biobased companies; outsourcing; adding value through improved formulations, drop-ins' and additives; and the streamlining of product portfolios.

The next section discusses the international perspective and geographical diversification.
The next section analyzes the future of the regulation and legislation as it affects the biorefinery industry.

The next section presents company shares.

Major companies involved in the biorefinery industry are then profiled, along with details of their activities and their contact information.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global market for biorefinery technologies reached $342.8 billion in 2012. This market is expected to grow to $387.8 billion in 2013 and $700.7 billion in 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.6% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018.

This report provides:

• A complete techno-economic and environmental analysis of industrial biorefineries, which have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a domestic bio-based industry
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) for the five year period, 2013 to 2018
• Coverage of all biomass fractionation and conversion technologies
• Forecasts for biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass
• Identification of feedstocks, chemical products, and transportation fuels
• Evaluations of the prospects for biorefineries built on different "platforms," such as the "sugar platform," based on fermentation of sugars extracted from biomass feedstocks, versus the "syngas platform," based on thermochemical conversion processes
• Detailed patent analysis and a research-and-development update
• Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH STUDIES 4
METHODOLOGY 5
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 5
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 6
DISCLAIMER 6

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
TYPE, 2010-2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11

INTRODUCTION 11
TABLE 1 BIOREFINERY CONFIGURATIONS 11
INDUSTRY DEFINITION 11
TABLE 2 BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 12
BIOREFINERY PLATFORMS, ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCT SEGMENTS 12
TABLE 3 MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND
PRODUCTS 12
OVERVIEW OF BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13
TABLE 4 ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13
BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 14
TABLE 5 BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 15
OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND MATERIAL USES 16
TABLE 6 INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USE OF BIOBASED RAW MATERIALS OVERVIEW 17
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION 18
TABLE 7 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 19
BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OVERVIEW 19
TABLE 8 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS OVERVIEW 19
MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS IN THE PROPOSED APPROACH 20
TABLE 9 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY APPROACH MARKET FEATURES AND
RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 21
IMPORTANCE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 22
TABLE 10 PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY TO CRUDE
PRODUCTS 23
SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 23
TABLE 11 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 24
TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 25
TABLE 12 ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS COMPANY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS 26
STAFFING AND SALARY 26
TABLE 13 STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A
10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY 27
SCIENCE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 27
TABLE 14 SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 28
ENGINEERING AND MAPPING PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND
WAGES 28
TABLE 15 SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 ($) 29
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS,
CAREERS AND WAGES 29
TABLE 16 SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND
WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 30
INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND
WAGES 30
TABLE 17 SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 31
AGRICULTURE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 31
TABLE 18 SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32
PRODUCTION PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 32
TABLE 19 SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32
SALES PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES 33
TABLE 20 SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 33
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS,
CAREERS AND WAGES 33
TABLE 21 SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND
WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34
MECHANICS AND MAINTENANCE PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS
AND WAGES 34
TABLE 22 SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 ($) 34
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 34
TABLE 23 ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY
KEY FEEDSTOCK PLATFORM 35
TABLE 24 BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 36
IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 36
TABLE 25 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 37
U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY 39
TABLE 26 U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY
TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2012 39

CHAPTER 4 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICS 41

INTRODUCTION 41
REGULAR GASOLINE 41
DIESEL 41
ETHANOL 41
BIODIESEL 42
TABLE 27 BIOREFINERY AND PETRO-REFINERY FEEDSTOCK PRICE SHIFTS, MARCH
2008-MARCH 2013 ($) 42
COMPETITIVENESS OF BIORENEWABLE PRODUCTS: COST OF BIOPRODUCTS
COMPARED TO PETRO-PRODUCTS BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 42
TABLE 28 FEEDSTOCK COMPARISON AND COST OF BIO-REFINERIES TO
PETRO-REFINERIES BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 43
TABLE 29 VARIOUS FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 44
REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR DEDICATED SPECIES 44
STARCH AND OIL CROPS 44
SUGARCANE PLANTS 44
LIGNOCELLULOSIC PLANTS 44
TABLE 30 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANAGEMENT AND COSTS FOR
DEDICATED SPECIES AND THEIR PRIMARY RESIDUES 45
INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 46
TABLE 31 BIOLOGICAL RAW MATERIALS REPLACING PETROLEUM-BASED RAW
MATERIALS 47
DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47
TABLE 32 DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47
REFINERS'ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL 48
TABLE 33 U.S. REFINERS' ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL, THROUGH 2018 ($
PER BARREL) 48
INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS 48
TABLE 34 DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 49
COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE DROP-IN FUELS 51
Microalgae 51
Non-Food Crops 53
System Configuration 53
TABLE 35 COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE, DROP-IN
ADVANCED BIOFUELS THAT COST LESS THAN $100 PER BARREL, 2012–2013 53
BIOREFINERY OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC
IMPACT 57
TABLE 36 FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR
BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 58
IMPACT 59
TABLE 37 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 59
ECONOMIC OUTPUT 60
TABLE 38 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A TYPICAL 50 MMGY BIOFUELS PLANT 60
TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61
TABLE 39 TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM SEGMENTATION 62
TABLE 40 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTATION DEMAND BY PLATFORM,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 63

CHAPTER 5 DEMAND FOR PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 65

INTRODUCTION 65
TABLE 41 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS,
THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION 65
TABLE 42 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 67
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FINE/SPECIALTY CHEMICALS PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 68
TABLE 43 GLOBAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL DEMAND BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 68
RAW MATERIALS FOR BASIC OLEOCHEMICALS AND BIOPOLYMERS 68
PRODUCTION 68
CONSUMPTION 69
TABLE 44 GLOBAL VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS
MILLIONS) 69
U.S. 69
E.U.-27 70
Brazil 70
Argentina 70
Indonesia 70
Malaysia 70
China 71
Rest of World 71
TABLE 45 GLOBAL STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018
(TONS MILLIONS) 71
FIGURE 1 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 73
FIGURE 2 TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND
METATHESIS REACTIONS 73
FIGURE 3 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 74
TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 74
TABLE 46 TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 75
Polysaccharides 75
Starch 75
Cellulose 76
Cellulose Acetate 76
Gums 76
Chitin and Chitosan 76
Proteins 76
Lipids 76
Furfural Alcohol and Furan Resins 77
RESINS SYNTHESIZED FROM BIO-DERIVED MONOMERS 77
Polyurethanes 77
Acrylics 77
PRODUCTION OF POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE FROM PROPANE
DIOL AND PURIFIED TEREPHTHALIC ACID OR DIMETHYL ESTER DIMETHYL
TEREPHTHALATE
77
FIGURE 4 POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 78
STARCH 78
TABLE 47 PRIMARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER
PRODUCTION 79
TABLE 48 SECONDARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER
PRODUCTION 79
TABLE 49 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS BASED ON NATURAL OILS 80
TABLE 50 LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY
DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 80
BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 80
TABLE 51 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 81
FIGURE 5 NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 81
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE DEMAND BY PROCESSING TECHNIQUES 82
Resin Transfer Molding and Vacuum Injection 82
Sheet Molding Compound 83
Vacuum Pressing 83
Sandwich Technology 83
TABLE 52 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 83
TABLE 53 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE ($) 84
TABLE 54 BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 84
THERMOSET 85
THERMOPLASTIC 85
TABLE 55 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 86
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 86
FIGURE 6 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL 86
TABLE 56 BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION 87
TABLE 57 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FLOWTABLE 88
TABLE 58 BIODIESEL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 89
BIODIESEL DEMAND BY CATALYST TECHNOLOGY TYPE 89
TABLE 59 BIODIESEL BY CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY DEMAND TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS) 90
Mixing of Alcohol and Catalyst 90
Reaction 90
Separation 90
Alcohol Removal 90
Glycerin Neutralization 91
Methyl Ester Wash 91
Product Quality 91
Base Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 91
Acid Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 92
Other Alternative Catalysts 92
Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts 92
Enzyme Catalysts 92
Supercritical Methanol 92
HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 93
TABLE 60 HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL DEMAND BY PLANT PART
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLION) 93
DRUGS FROM PLANT ROOTS 93
Aconite 93
Colchicum 94
Gentian 94
Goldenseal 94
Ginseng 94
Ipecac 94
Jalap 95
Licorice 95
Podophyllum 95
Rhubarb 95
Squills 95
Senega 96
Valerian 96
Lonchocarpus 96
Derris 96
Rotenone 97
DRUGS FROM THE BARK OF PLANTS 97
Sangre de Grado 97
Cascara 97
Curare 97
Quinine 98
Slippery Elm 98
DRUGS FROM STEMS AND WOODS 98
Ephedrine 98
Guiacum 99
Quassia 99
DRUGS FROM PLANT LEAVES 99
Aloe 99
Belladonna 99
Cocaine 100
Buchu 100
Digitalis 100
Eucalyptus 100
Hamamelis 100
Henbane 101
Hoarhound 101
Lobelia 101
Pennyroyal 101
Senna 101
Stramonium 102
Wormwood 102
DRUGS FROM FLOWERS 102
Pyrethrum 102
Chamomile 103
Hops 103
Santonin 103
Red Squill 103
DRUGS FROM FRUITS AND SEEDS 103
Chaulmoogra Oil 104
Colocynth 104
Cubebs 104
Croton Oil 104
Nux Vomica 104
Opium 104
Psyllium 105
Strophanthus 105
Wormseed 105
DRUGS FROM RHIZOMES 105
Gingerroot 106
Galangal 106
Galangal Varieties 106
Tumeric 106
DRUGS FROM LOWER PLANTS 107
Antibiotics 107
Agar 107
Ergot 107
Kelp 108
Lycopodium 108
Male Fern 108
HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL DEMAND BY EXTRACTION
TECHNOLOGY 108
TABLE 61 PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM AROMATIC
PLANTS 109
LARGE-VOLUME OILS 109
SMALL-VOLUME OILS 109
FIGURE 7 VALUE CHAIN IN THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY 110
COLD PRESSING TECHNOLOGY 110
WATER-EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 111
Water Maceration 111
Water/Steam Distillation 111
FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A STEAM DISTILLATION UNIT 111
ENFLEURAGE TECHNOLOGY 112
LOW-BOILING SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 113
FIGURE 9 SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES 1-PRIMARY BOILING VESSEL;
2-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER; 3-SECONDARY BOILING VESSEL;
4-CONDENSER/COOLER VESSEL.
113
DRYING 114
TABLE 62 HERBAL/BOTANICAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND, THROUGH
2018 ($BILLIONS) 115

CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND 117

INTRODUCTION 117
TABLE 63 PILLERS OF INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 117
TABLE 64 BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR
DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 118
FIGURE 10 BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF END PRODUCTS AND INTERMEDIATES
FOR THE CHEMICAL, FUEL AND ENERGY INDUSTRY 119
TABLE 65 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018
($BILLIONS) 121
FERMENTATIVE TECHNOLOGY 121
TABLE 66 FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 121
FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL FERMENTATIVE PROCESS REACTOR 122
BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT BY MALTING AND
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 122
TABLE 67 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT USING MALTING AND
FERMENTATION 123
BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING CORN FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 123
CORN WET MILLING TECHNOLOGY 123
CORN DRY MILLING TECHNOLOGY 124
TABLE 68 CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 124
SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 125
TABLE 69 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET 125
CELLULOSIC ETHANOL TECHNOLOGY 125
FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE LOCATION AND STRUCTURE OF
LIGNIN IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL 126
OTHER 126
BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 127
TABLE 70 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 127
BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 127
Azeotropic Distillation 128
Molecular Sieve 128
Membrane Technology 128
FIGURE 13 ETHANOL DEHYDRATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 129
TABLE 71 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS) 129
BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 129
TABLE 72 BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 130
TABLE 73 MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 131
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 134
TABLE 74 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 135
Manure Digesters 135
Wastewater 136
TABLE 75 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ BILLIONS) 136
LANDFILL 136
Anaerobic Process 136
Aerobic Process 137
TABLE 76 LANDFILL BIOGAS DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 137
BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE 137
TABLE 77 SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 138
TABLE 78 BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 139
Amine Process 139
Adsorption Process 139
Membrane Process 139
Combination Processes 140
FERMENTATION-DERIVED PRODUCTS 140
TABLE 79 GLOBAL FERMENTATION-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 140
Crude Antibiotics Technology 141
Amino Acids Technology 141
Biocatalytic Technology 141
Organic Acids Technology 141
Xanthan Technology 142
Vitamin Technology 142
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 142
TABLE 80 BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS)* 143
BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR PLATFORM CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 143
TABLE 81 VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE,
HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS) 144
BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR PLATFORM CHEMICAL DEMAND 145
TABLE 82 BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR PLATFORM CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 145
BIOTRANSFORMATION PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT TECHNOLOGY
DEMAND 145
TABLE 83 GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 146
BIOTRANSFORMATION BIO DRUG TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 146
TABLE 84 GLOBAL ANTIBODY BIODRUG DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 146
BIOTRANSFORMATION BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL DEMAND 147
Biosurfactants 147
Bioremediation 147
Biofertilizers 147
TABLE 85 BIOTRANSFORMATION FINE/SPECIALTY CHEMICAL DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 148
BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 148
TABLE 86 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 148
POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS 149
FIGURE 14 PRODUCTION OF POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS 150
PRODUCTION OF 1, 3-PROPANEDIOL 150
FIGURE 15 BIOBASED ROUTES TO 1, 3-PROPANEDIOL 151
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES 151
PLASTICS DIRECTLY FROM PLANTS 151
BIOBASED POLYETHYLENE 152
TABLE 87 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 152
BIOTRANSFORMATION BIODIESEL TECHNOLOGY 152
Microalgae Biodiesel Production Technology 153
TABLE 88 OIL YIELD BY CROP TYPE (GALLONS PER ACRE) 153
Open Ponds 153
Enclosed Ponds 154
TABLE 89 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 154
Continuous Versus Batch Operation Mode 155
TABLE 90 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
MODE-OF-OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 155
Oily Biomass Biodiesel Production 156
TABLE 91 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 156

CHAPTER 7 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND 158

INTRODUCTION 158
TABLE 92 THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICALS
FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 158
THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE 159
TABLE 93 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 160
DIRECT BIOMASS COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 160
FIGURE 16 DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 160
Fixed-Bed Combustion Technology 161
Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology 161
Pulverized Bed Combustion Technology 161
Incineration Technology 161
TABLE 94 BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 162
BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 162
Fixed-Bed Gasification Technology 162
Fluidized-Bed Gasification Technology 163
TABLE 95 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($BILLIONS) 163
PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND 163
FIGURE 17 PYROLYTIC REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 163
Conventional Pyrolysis Technology 164
Fast Pyrolysis Technology 164
TABLE 96 BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($BILLIONS) 164
THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM
TYPE 164
HEAT RECOVERY 165
POWER GENERATION 165
TABLE 97 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY
SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 166

CHAPTER 8 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 168

INTRODUCTION 168
CUMULATIVE CAPACITIES 168
TABLE 98 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY
TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 168
BIOCHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 169
TABLE 99 BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 169
CELLULOSIC TECHNOLOGY 173
TABLE 100 INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 173
TABLE 101 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS
AND FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 174
Cellulose Structure and Hydrolysis Challenges 174
FIGURE 18 CELLULOSE STRUCTURE 174
FIGURE 19 BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF CELLULOSE TO ETHANOL 176
MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 176
Pretreatment 176
Hydrolysis 177
TABLE 102 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, BY METHOD OF
PRE-TREATMENT 177
TABLE 103 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 178
THERMO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 178
TABLE 104 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 179
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS 181
TABLE 105 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 182

CHAPTER 9 PROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184

INTRODUCTION 184
TABLE 106 ADVANCED BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184
PATENTS EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS 185
TABLE 107 U.S. PATENT FILINGS FOR BIOMASS INVENTIONS, THROUGH 2013* 185
PATENTS ANALYSIS 186
Process Efficiency 186
Algae-Related Applications 186
New and/or Improved Fermentors 186
TABLE 108 BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS, BY TOPIC, 2012 187

CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE RATES 189

INTRODUCTION 189
TABLE 109 MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW, BY
TECHNOLOGY 189
BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 190
TABLE 110 METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO
BIOPRODUCTS 191
TABLE 111 CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIOBASED PRODUCTS 192
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 192
TABLE 112 BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 193
IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS INDUSTRY 193
TABLE 113 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR THE BIO-DERIVED PRODUCT INDUSTRY 193
COMPARISON OF BIOREFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES 200
TABLE 114 PETRO-REFINERY SUPPLY VALUE CHAIN OVERVIEW 200
TECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN 200
TABLE 115 NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS, BY TYPE OF
BIOREFINERY 201
VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS 201
TABLE 116 ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING
AND STANDARDIZATION 202
TABLE 117 VALUE-ADDITION IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 203
COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 203
TABLE 118 GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 204
BIOREFINERY PLANT SCALE OF OPERATION 204
TABLE 119 TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION
BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNO-CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 204
TABLE 120 CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND
COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 205
INTEGRATED BIOREFINERY DEMONSTRATION CO-FUNDED BY THE U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 206
TABLE 121 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO-FUNDED INTEGRATED
BIOREFINERIES 206
COMMERCIALIZATION STAGES OF VARIOUS BIO-PRODUCTS AND
TECHNOLOGIES 207
TABLE 122 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 207
PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF BIOREFINERIES 209
TABLE 123 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES,
BY COMPANY 210

CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL TRENDS 218

INTRODUCTION 218
TABLE 124 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 218
GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 219
TABLE 125 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS, BY COUNTRY 220

CHAPTER 12 REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION 224

INTRODUCTION 224
TABLE 126 IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
REGULATIONS, BY AREA 224
COMPANY SHARES 225
TABLE 127 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET BY COMPANY, 2012 (%) 225

CHAPTER 13 COMPANY PROFILES 235

BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES 235
ABENGOA BIOENERGIA 235
AMGEN 235
AMYLIN PHARMACEUTICALS 236
BAXTER INTERNATIONAL 237
BETA RENEWABLES 237
BIOGASOL 238
BIOGEN IDEC 238
BLUE SUGARS CORPORATION 239
BORREGAARD 239
BP BIOFUELS 240
CELGENE 240
CEPHALON 241
CLARIENT 241
DUPONT 241
FIBERIGHT 242
GENENTECH 242
GILEAD SCIENCES 243
GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS 243
IMCLONE SYSTEMS 244
IOGEN 245
LANZATECH 245
MEDIMMUNE 245
PETROBRAS 245
POET-DSM ADVANCED BIOFUELS 246
SALIX PHARMACEUTICALS 246
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES 246
ALIPHAJET 246
DYNAMIC FUELS LLC 247
FIGURE 20 BIO-SYNFINING CONVERSION OF TRIGLYCERIDES 247
VIRENT 247
WILMAR INTERNATIONAL LTD. 248
THERMO-CHEMICAL PLATFORM COMPANIES 248
CHEMREC 248
ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER OF THE NETHERLANDS 249
ENERKEM 249
GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 250
GOTEBORG ENERGI 250
GREASOLINE 250
INEOS BIO 251
LICELLA 251



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 BIOREFINERY CONFIGURATIONS 11
TABLE 2 BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 12
TABLE 3 MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND PRODUCTS 12
TABLE 4 ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC BIOPRODUCT SUPPLY CHAIN 13
TABLE 5 BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS OVERVIEW 15
TABLE 6 INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USE OF BIOBASED RAW MATERIALS OVERVIEW 17
TABLE 7 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 19
TABLE 8 BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS OVERVIEW 19
TABLE 9 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY APPROACH MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE
SUBGROUPS 21
TABLE 10 PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY TO CRUDE PRODUCTS 23
TABLE 11 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 24
TABLE 12 ADVANCED BIOPRODUCTS COMPANY EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS 26
TABLE 13 STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A
10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY 27
TABLE 14 SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 28
TABLE 15 SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 ($) 29
TABLE 16 SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND
WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 30
TABLE 17 SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 31
TABLE 18 SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32
TABLE 19 SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 32
TABLE 20 SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 33
TABLE 21 SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND
WAGES, 2012-2013 ($) 34
TABLE 22 SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND WAGES,
2012-2013 ($) 34
TABLE 23 ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY
FEEDSTOCK PLATFORM 35
TABLE 24 BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 36
TABLE 25 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 37
TABLE 26 U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY
TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2012 39
TABLE 27 BIOREFINERY AND PETRO-REFINERY FEEDSTOCK PRICE SHIFTS, MARCH
2008-MARCH 2013 ($) 42
TABLE 28 FEEDSTOCK COMPARISON AND COST OF BIO-REFINERIES TO
PETRO-REFINERIES BASED ON CARBON CONTENT 43
TABLE 29 VARIOUS FOSSIL FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 44
TABLE 30 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANAGEMENT AND COSTS FOR
DEDICATED SPECIES AND THEIR PRIMARY RESIDUES 45
TABLE 31 BIOLOGICAL RAW MATERIALS REPLACING PETROLEUM-BASED RAW
MATERIALS 47
TABLE 32 DROP-IN VERSUS NEW FUNCTIONALITY 47
TABLE 33 U.S. REFINERS' ACQUISITION COST OF CRUDE OIL, THROUGH 2018 ($ PER
BARREL) 48
TABLE 34 DROP-IN BIOPRODUCTS 49
TABLE 35 COMPANIES DEVELOPING INFRASTRUCTURE-COMPATIBLE, DROP-IN
ADVANCED BIOFUELS THAT COST LESS THAN $100 PER BARREL, 2012–2013 53
TABLE 36 FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR
BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 58
TABLE 37 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOMASS CONVERSION TO BIOPRODUCTS ($) 59
TABLE 38 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A TYPICAL 50 MMGY BIOFUELS PLANT 60
TABLE 39 TECHNOLOGY JOBS IN BIOREFINING 61
TABLE 40 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTATION DEMAND BY PLATFORM,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 63
TABLE 41 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS,
THEIR DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION 65
TABLE 42 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 67
TABLE 43 GLOBAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL DEMAND BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 44 GLOBAL VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018 (TONS MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 45 GLOBAL STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2018
(TONS MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 46 TECHNOLOGY ORIGINS OF BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS 75
TABLE 47 PRIMARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER
PRODUCTION 79
TABLE 48 SECONDARY STARCH-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR POLYMER
PRODUCTION 79
TABLE 49 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS BASED ON NATURAL OILS 80
TABLE 50 LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY DEMAND
BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 80
TABLE 51 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 81
TABLE 52 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 83
TABLE 53 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE ($) 84
TABLE 54 BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 84
TABLE 55 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ BILLIONS) 86
TABLE 56 BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION 87
TABLE 57 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FLOWTABLE 88
TABLE 58 BIODIESEL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 59 BIODIESEL BY CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY DEMAND TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS) 90
TABLE 60 HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL DEMAND BY PLANT PART
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLION) 93
TABLE 61 PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM AROMATIC PLANTS 109
TABLE 62 HERBAL/BOTANICAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND, THROUGH
2018 ($BILLIONS) 115
TABLE 63 PILLERS OF INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 117
TABLE 64 BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR
DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 118
TABLE 65 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018
($BILLIONS) 121
TABLE 66 FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 121
TABLE 67 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT USING MALTING AND
FERMENTATION 123
TABLE 68 CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 124
TABLE 69 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE OR SUGAR BEET 125
TABLE 70 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 127
TABLE 71 BIOETHANOL DEMAND BY DEHYDRATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS) 129
TABLE 72 BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE ($ BILLIONS) 130
TABLE 73 MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 131
TABLE 74 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 135
TABLE 75 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS) 136
TABLE 76 LANDFILL BIOGAS DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 137
TABLE 77 SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 138
TABLE 78 BIOGAS DEMAND BY RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 139
TABLE 79 GLOBAL FERMENTATION-DERIVED FINE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY MARKET,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 80 BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ BILLIONS)* 143
TABLE 81 VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE,
HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS) 144
TABLE 82 BIOTRANSFORMATION FOR PLATFORM CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND
BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ BILLIONS) 145
TABLE 83 GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT DEMAND, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 146
TABLE 84 GLOBAL ANTIBODY BIODRUG DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
BILLIONS) 146
TABLE 85 BIOTRANSFORMATION FINE/SPECIALTY CHEMICAL DEMAND BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 148
TABLE 86 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 148
TABLE 87 BIOTRANSFORMATION POLYMER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 152
TABLE 88 OIL YIELD BY CROP TYPE (GALLONS PER ACRE) 153
TABLE 89 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 154
TABLE 90 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
MODE-OF-OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 155
TABLE 91 BIOTRANSFORMATION MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 156
TABLE 92 THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICALS
FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 158
TABLE 93 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 160
TABLE 94 BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 162
TABLE 95 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($BILLIONS) 163
TABLE 96 BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($BILLIONS) 164
TABLE 97 THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEMAND BY ENERGY RECOVERY
SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($BILLIONS) 166
TABLE 98 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY
TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM 168
TABLE 99 BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 169
TABLE 100 INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 173
TABLE 101 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND
FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 174
TABLE 102 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, BY METHOD OF
PRE-TREATMENT 177
TABLE 103 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 178
TABLE 104 THERMO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 179
TABLE 105 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (TONS PER YEAR) 182
TABLE 106 ADVANCED BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT 184
TABLE 107 U.S. PATENT FILINGS FOR BIOMASS INVENTIONS, THROUGH 2013* 185
TABLE 108 BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS, BY TOPIC, 2012 187
TABLE 109 MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW, BY
TECHNOLOGY 189
TABLE 110 METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO
BIOPRODUCTS 191
TABLE 111 CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIOBASED PRODUCTS 192
TABLE 112 BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 193
TABLE 113 IMPORTANT INDICATIONS FOR THE BIO-DERIVED PRODUCT INDUSTRY 193
TABLE 114 PETRO-REFINERY SUPPLY VALUE CHAIN OVERVIEW 200
TABLE 115 NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS, BY TYPE OF
BIOREFINERY 201
TABLE 116 ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING AND
STANDARDIZATION 202
TABLE 117 VALUE-ADDITION IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS 203
TABLE 118 GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 204
TABLE 119 TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION
BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNO-CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 204
TABLE 120 CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND
COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 205
TABLE 121 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO-FUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES 206
TABLE 122 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 207
TABLE 123 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES, BY
COMPANY 210
TABLE 124 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 218
TABLE 125 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOBASED PRODUCTS, BY COUNTRY 220
TABLE 126 IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
REGULATIONS, BY AREA 224
TABLE 127 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET BY COMPANY, 2012 (%) 225



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIOREFINERY DEMAND BY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
TYPE, 2010-2018 ($ BILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 73
FIGURE 2 TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND
METATHESIS REACTIONS 73
FIGURE 3 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY 74
FIGURE 4 POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 78
FIGURE 5 NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 81
FIGURE 6 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL 86
FIGURE 7 VALUE CHAIN IN THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY 110
FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A STEAM DISTILLATION UNIT 111
FIGURE 9 SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES 1-PRIMARY BOILING VESSEL;
2-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER; 3-SECONDARY BOILING VESSEL; 4-CONDENSER/COOLER
VESSEL.
113
FIGURE 10 BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF


Read the full report:
Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets

https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/1923020/Biorefinery-Technologies-Global-Markets.html

For more information:
Sarah Smith
Research Advisor at Reportbuyer.com
Email: [email protected]
Tel: +44 208 816 85 48
Website: www.reportbuyer.com

SOURCE ReportBuyer

More Stories By PR Newswire

Copyright © 2007 PR Newswire. All rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of PRNewswire content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of PRNewswire. PRNewswire shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

Latest Stories
Container technology is sending shock waves through the world of cloud computing. Heralded as the 'next big thing,' containers provide software owners a consistent way to package their software and dependencies while infrastructure operators benefit from a standard way to deploy and run them. Containers present new challenges for tracking usage due to their dynamic nature. They can also be deployed to bare metal, virtual machines and various cloud platforms. How do software owners track the usag...
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Arch...
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducte...
Providing the needed data for application development and testing is a huge headache for most organizations. The problems are often the same across companies - speed, quality, cost, and control. Provisioning data can take days or weeks, every time a refresh is required. Using dummy data leads to quality problems. Creating physical copies of large data sets and sending them to distributed teams of developers eats up expensive storage and bandwidth resources. And, all of these copies proliferating...
Malicious agents are moving faster than the speed of business. Even more worrisome, most companies are relying on legacy approaches to security that are no longer capable of meeting current threats. In the modern cloud, threat diversity is rapidly expanding, necessitating more sophisticated security protocols than those used in the past or in desktop environments. Yet companies are falling for cloud security myths that were truths at one time but have evolved out of existence.
Digital Transformation is the ultimate goal of cloud computing and related initiatives. The phrase is certainly not a precise one, and as subject to hand-waving and distortion as any high-falutin' terminology in the world of information technology. Yet it is an excellent choice of words to describe what enterprise IT—and by extension, organizations in general—should be working to achieve. Digital Transformation means: handling all the data types being found and created in the organizat...
Public Cloud IaaS started its life in the developer and startup communities and has grown rapidly to a $20B+ industry, but it still pales in comparison to how much is spent worldwide on IT: $3.6 trillion. In fact, there are 8.6 million data centers worldwide, the reality is many small and medium sized business have server closets and colocation footprints filled with servers and storage gear. While on-premise environment virtualization may have peaked at 75%, the Public Cloud has lagged in adop...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
The Software Defined Data Center (SDDC), which enables organizations to seamlessly run in a hybrid cloud model (public + private cloud), is here to stay. IDC estimates that the software-defined networking market will be valued at $3.7 billion by 2016. Security is a key component and benefit of the SDDC, and offers an opportunity to build security 'from the ground up' and weave it into the environment from day one. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Reuven Harrison, CTO and Co-Founder of Tufin,...
The time is ripe for high speed resilient software defined storage solutions with unlimited scalability. ISS has been working with the leading open source projects and developed a commercial high performance solution that is able to grow forever without performance limitations. In his session at Cloud Expo, Alex Gorbachev, President of Intelligent Systems Services Inc., shared foundation principles of Ceph architecture, as well as the design to deliver this storage to traditional SAN storage co...
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with ...
The Cloud industry has moved from being more than just being able to provide infrastructure and management services on the Cloud. Enter a new era of Cloud computing where monetization’s services through the Cloud are an essential piece of strategy to feed your organizations bottom-line, your revenue and Profitability. In their session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ermanno Bonifazi, CEO & Founder of Solgenia, and Ian Khan, Global Strategic Positioning & Brand Manager at Solgenia, discussed how to easily o...
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
In their session at 17th Cloud Expo, Hal Schwartz, CEO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), and Chuck Paolillo, CTO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), provide a study of cloud adoption trends and the power and flexibility of IBM Power and Pureflex cloud solutions. In his role as CEO of Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS), Hal Schwartz provides leadership and direction for the company.
Rapid innovation, changing business landscapes, and new IT demands force businesses to make changes quickly. The DevOps approach is a way to increase business agility through collaboration, communication, and integration across different teams in the IT organization. In his session at DevOps Summit, Chris Van Tuin, Chief Technologist for the Western US at Red Hat, will discuss: The acceleration of application delivery for the business with DevOps