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Wissenschaftler der NTHU versehen MRAM der nächsten Generation mit einem „Spin“

Der Speicher Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) wird künftig die Grundlage der digitalen Technologie der nächsten Generation bilden. Die effiziente und effektive Manipulation des MRAM stellt jedoch eine Herausforderung dar. Einem interdisziplinären Forschungsteam der National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) in Taiwan unter der Leitung von Prof. Chih-Huang Lai und Prof. Hsiu-Hau Lin gelang kürzlich ein revolutionärer Durchbruch. Mithilfe einer nur wenige Nanometer dicken Platinschicht wird Spinstrom erzeugt, um die gepinnten magnetischen Momente nach Belieben zu schalten - diese Aufgabe wurde bislang noch nie gelöst.

Diese Pressemitteilung enthält multimediale Inhalte. Die vollständige Mitteilung hier ansehen: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190417005058/de/

Professor Lai Chih-huang (left) and Lin Hsiu-hau of NTHU using hand gestures to represent the 0-1 co ...

Professor Lai Chih-huang (left) and Lin Hsiu-hau of NTHU using hand gestures to represent the 0-1 concept in digital memory. (Photo: National Tsing Hua University)

Angefangen bei Mobiltelefonen über Computer, tragbare Geräte, das Internet der Dinge bis hin zu intelligenten Stadtbetrieben ist die Verarbeitung und Speicherung von Daten äußerst wichtig. In Bezug auf ein schnelleres Lesen und Schreiben, einen geringeren Stromverbrauch und den Erhalt von Daten bei einem Stromausfall hebt sich der MRAM in einem starken Konkurrenzumfeld ab. Der jüngst inNature Materials veröffentlichte Durchbruch von Lai und Lin beflügelt die MRAM-Technologie und findet in Industrie und Wissenschaft Beachtung.

Steuerung von Spinströmen im MRAM

Derzeit erfolgt die Informationsverarbeitung in digitalen Geräten in erster Linie auf Grundlage des Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), ist jedoch mit einem erheblichen Stromverbrauch sowie großen Hindernissen verbunden, wenn die Größe verringert wird.

Der DRAM nutzt die Ladung von Elektronen. „Elektronen haben jedoch sowohl Ladung als auch Spin“, sagte Lai. „Warum kann man den MRAM nicht mit Elektronenspins manipulieren?“ Zur Umsetzung der Idee bildeten Lai und Lin ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsteam mit den Doktoranden Bohong Lin und Boyuan Yang.

Die Struktur des MRAM ähnelt einem Sandwich, so Lin. Die obere Schicht besteht aus einem frei beweglichen Magneten für die Datenberechnung und die untere Schicht aus einem festen Magneten für die Datenspeicherung - diese beiden Schichten sind durch eine Oxidschicht getrennt.

Die Herausforderung besteht darin, diese unterschiedlichen Schichten elektrisch zu schalten. Nach vielen Experimenten entdeckten sie den entscheidenden Faktor: eine Nanometer dicke Platinschicht. Aufgrund von Interaktionen zwischen Spin und Bahn treibt der elektrische Strom zuerst die kollektive Bewegung von Elektronenspins an. Der Spinstrom schaltet anschließend effektiv und präzise das gepinnte magnetische Moment.

Glühend heiße Spintronic

In den letzten Jahren förderte die NTHU die interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit wie die MRAM-Forschung des Physikers Lin und des Werkstoffexperten Lai, die inzwischen nahtlos zusammenarbeiten.

Wichtige internationale Unternehmen wie Samsung, Intel und TSMC beteiligen sich am Wettbewerb der MRAM-Entwicklung. Möglicherweise beginnt die Massenproduktion des hochdichten Speichers MRAM noch in diesem Jahr, eine Entwicklung, bei der das Forschungsteam unter der Leitung von Lai und Lin eine Schlüsselrolle gespielt hat.

Das Forschungsteam überträgt derzeit seine bahnbrechende Entdeckung auf andere Strukturen und die laufenden Ergebnisse könnten Erwartungen zufolge einen großen Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der Speicherindustrie haben. Nach Ansicht von Lai wird die Entwicklung der MRAM-Technologie künftig die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der taiwanesischen Halbleiterbranche erheblich beeinflussen.

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